Welding Defects- Types, their causes, and remedies


Table of Contents

Welding Defects Types with pictures

The pictures here show various types of welding defects that can occur during arc welding processes. Weld defects are created due to various reasons. The welding conditions such as filler wire, base material, surrounding conditions, and equipment have a profound influence on the final welding result.

Welding Porosity

How do I recognize them?

Porous weld seams act as if tiny particles were trapped there. The surface is often rough and uneven in color. It also doesn’t seem to be purely metallic and has small holes.

What could be the problem?

  • The welding point was not sufficiently covered with protective gas.
  • The welding point is damp.
  • The welding point is contaminated.
  • The weld is coated in an annoying manner.

What can I do?

  • Improve the shielding gas coverage.
  • Dry the work pieces.
  • Clean the workpiece.
  • Remove unwanted coatings.

Lack of fusion

How do I recognize them?

If there are defects in the connection, there is no correct connection between the weld metal and the base material. The connection wobbles or breaks apart when you pull or apply pressure with both hands.

What could be the problem?

  • The welding performance is wrong.
  • The welding speed is too high.
  • You may have welded downwards.
  • The arc was not centered.
  • The arc is excessively long.

What can I do?

  • Increase welding performance.
  • Reduce the welding speed.
  • Weld upwards.
  • Change the torch posture.

How do I recognize them?

Small cracks that follow at some distance from the melting line.

What could be the problem?

  • The arc is too long or the voltage is too high.
  • The welding performance is too high.
  • The electrode oscillates excessively.

What can I do?

  • Reduce the arc length or reduce the voltage.
  • Reduce the welding performance.
  • Change your welding technique.

Lack of root fusion

How do I recognize them?

Slag inclusions show up as small chunks of slag residues that are trapped in the weld seam.

What could be the problem?

  • The welding performance is too low.
  • The arc is too long.
  • The weld is not well prepared.
  • Advancing slag

What can I do?

  • Increase welding performance.
  • Shorten the arc.
  • Prepare the weld carefully.
  • Hold the arc towards the weld pool.

How do I recognize them?The seam superelevation is an excess of material in the weld seam. The weld seam seems to be overflowing with material.

What could be the problem?

  • You are using too much filler material or welding too slowly.
  • The electrode diameter is too big.

What can I do?

  • Increase the welding speed.
  • Use less filler material.
  • Choose a suitable electrode diameter.

How do I recognize them?The weld seam is not symmetrical, but always unevenly thick

What could be the problem?

  • The electrode angle is incorrect.
  • The weld pool is too big.
  • Magnetic arc blowing effect.
  • The arc is too long.

What can I do?

  • Weld at the correct angle.
  • Reduce the welding performance.
  • Move the ground clamp.
  • Shorten the arc.

How do I recognize them?The material comes out in excess on the other side of the material.

What could be the problem?

  • The heat input is too high.
  • The gap between the parts to be welded is too large.

What can I do?

  • Reduce the welding performance.
  • Reduce the gap between the parts to be welded.
  • Make the jetty bigger.

How do I recognize them?The weld seam is cracked or torn due to heat or tension.

What could be the problem?

  • The ratio between the width and depth of the seam is unfavorable.
  • The components to be welded have a high internal stress.
  • You are using the wrong filler material.

What can I do?

  • Use a common ratio between the depth and width of the weld (e.g. 1: 1 for mild steel).
  • Staple the components without tension.
  • Choose a suitable filler material.

How do I recognize them?The weld seam is insufficient. It seems too small to fill the gap between the workpieces.

What could be the problem?

  • The weld seam is not prepared appropriately.
  • The welding performance is too low.
  • The arc is too long.
  • The welding speed is too high.

What can I do?

  • Enlarge the root opening.
  • Increase welding performance.
  • Shorten the arc.
  • Reduce the welding speed.

How do I recognize them?The workpieces are not welded on straight, but are offset from one another

What could be the problem?

  • Fixing or stapling the workpieces is not sufficient.
  • You caused a delay in the workpieces when stapling.
  • The tack seams are broken before welding.

What can I do?

  • Secure the workpieces securely before welding.
  • Apply the correct weld sequence.
  • Dimension the tack welds sufficiently.

How do I recognize them?In the weld seam, cracks in the crater of the weld seam can be seen.

What could be the problem?

  • Significant shrinkage occurred as the weld pool solidified.
  • You have reduced the welding power too quickly.

What can I do?

  • Activate the end crater filling function on your welding machine.

How do I recognize them?Small splashes of the weld pool can be seen next to the weld seam.

What could be the problem?

  • You have chosen the wrong welding parameters.
  • The polarity is wrong.
  • The quality of the filler material is poor.
  • The shielding gas is insufficient.

What can I do?

  • Set the correct welding parameters.
  • Choose the correct polarity.
  • Check the filler metal.
  • Check the shielding gas supply.

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