E6010 Electrode Specification & its meaning

Meaning of E6010 Welding Rod

SMAW electrode E6010 or also called cellulose electrodes as per AWS SFA 5.1 or E4310 as per CSA W48 is the most widely used stick welding electrodes for root run welding in piping. This is also the primary electrode for welders to start learning the welding along with E7018 types. E6010 electrodes are characterized by a deeply penetrating, high force, spray arc and readily removable, very thin to negligible friable slag. The slag appears not to completely cover the weld bead in a visual look.

Fillet welds welded with E6010 are usually have a relatively flat weld face and have a rather coarse, unevenly spaced ripple. Using E6010 on capping and fill pass require maintenance of preheat temperature above 225°F or 100°C to ensure removal of hydrogen from the weldment.

Cellulose is an “organic compound,” which involves hydrogen. We all agree that hydrogen can do bad things in the welding of steel, such as cold cracking, however, when used wisely, hydrogen can be a friend. For reasons not completely well understood, hydrogen causes a much more concentrated arc, and that is the reason that E6010 and E6011 have a stiff arc with great penetration power… that’s the reason they can penetrate through paint and rust, and if you crank them up to “11”, they become cutting torches! Not only E6010 and E6011 use hydrogen to their advantage, it is also used occasionally in very high-tech plasma overlays to have a hotter, more concentrated arc.

Covering type of E6010 Electrode

The coverings of E6010 are primarily highly cellulose type (mostly paper pulp), usually exceeding 30% by weight. The other materials generally added to the covering include titanium dioxide (work as arc stabilizer element), metallic deoxidizers such as ferromanganese, various types of magnesium or aluminum silicates (to eliminate adverse effect of sulfur or oxidation elements in the weld), and liquid sodium silicate as a binder to hold the coating on the bare wire of mild steel.
Because of their covering composition, these electrodes are generally described as the high-cellulose sodium type stick electrode. During the burning of coating, the flux coating of E6010 will mainly create hydrogen & carbon dioxide.

E6010 electrode Specification & classification

E6010 electrodes are classified according to ASME Section IIC, 5.1 Specification for Carbon steel electrodes for Shielded metal arc welding or E4310 as per CSA W48 or SFA 5.1M.

Similar to other welding electrodes, each digit in E6010 electrode have its own meaning. These digit gives very valuable information about this electrode as given below:

  1. E stands for Electrodes for SMAW or stick welding.
  2. The next two digits i.e. 60 indicate the tensile strength of weld deposit is 60 KSI or 60000psi.
  3. The next digit 1 indicates it is all position electrode which mean F, V, OH, H positions. Where F = Flat, H = Horizontal, H-fillet = Horizontal fillet, V = Vertical and OH mean Overhead position.
  4. The last digit 0 indicates it is a High cellulose sodium and can be used with only DCEP polarity.

Click here to Learn Types of Polarity in Welding.

Charpy V-Notch Impact (toughness) Requirements for E6010 type electrode

E6010 require Stick welding electrode to have minimum V-Notch toughness values of 20 ft·lbf at –20°F [27 J at –30°C].

E6010 Welding electrode Polarity

E6010 electrodes are can be used with DCEP (electrode positive) only & designed only for DCEP. Welding with AC or DCEN will results in unstable arc and poor welding finish for the weld beads.

Click here to Learn Types of Polarity in Welding.

Storage & Baking/ reconditioning of E6010 Electrode

Cellulosic coverings for E6010 [E4310] electrodes need moisture levels of approximately 3% to 7% for proper operation; therefore, storage or conditioning above ambient temperature may dry them too much and adversely affect their operation.

After opening E6010 electrode packing, store electrode dry at room temperature and keep away from heat source. Reconditioning is not recommended as it will dry out the essential moisture from the coating which is required to generate hydrogen gases for electrode characteristics.

Selection of current for E6010 Electrode

The correct welding amperage (current)  setting mainly depends on the electrode diameter used. For example, a 1/8-inch E6010 rod runs well from 70 to 130 ampere, while a 3/16 inch E6010 rod welds at currents up to 225 ampere.

These electrodes have been designed for use with DCEP (electrode positive). The maximum amperage that can
generally be used with the larger sizes of these electrodes is limited in comparison to that for other classifications due to the high spatter loss that occurs with high amperage.

Below tables gives the recommended welding amperage for E6010 electrode diameter 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, 3/16, 7/32 & 1/4 inch sizes.

E6010 welding rod uses

  1. Multipass applications in the vertical and overhead welding positions and where welds of good soundness are required.
  2. For joining pipe and generally are capable of welding in the vertical position with either uphill or downhill progression.
  3. Used in shipbuilding, buildings, bridges, storage tanks, piping, and pressure vessel fittings.

Characteristics of E6010 Type electrode

  1. All-position, particularly good for vertical and overhead.
  2. Light slag with little slag interference for easy arc control.
  3. Deep penetration with maximum admixture.
  4. Capable of x-ray quality welds, out-of-position.

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