Welding positions for plate & pipe and their qualification range


What is a Welding position vs. Test Position

Welding position is the arrangement of the welding part or welding test coupon based on its axis slope and face rotation relative to its horizontal or vertical plane. ASME Section IX defines the welding position as Test position and production weld position. Test positions means the welding position that is used for welding the test coupon/ ticket for welder’s qualification. 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, 6G, 1F, 2F, 3F and so on- are the test positions. On the other hand, production weld positions refer to the weld position that is used for the welding on the actual job. Flat, Horizontal, Vertical and overhead, all of them are the weld position.

Understanding Welding Position

In ASME welding positions such as 1G, 2G, ‘G‘- means Groove weld & in 1F, 2F etc, ‘F’ means Fillet.

So, using term Flat position for a welder test coupon is not the right approach. 1G will be the right welding position that shall be used in this case. Below sketch shows the limitation of inclination angle and slope for welding positions.

Range of allowed rotation and slope for welding positions as per ASME Section IX

Here, For example- Flat position is having a inclination of axis from 0° to 15° & axis of weld can have a slope of 150° to 210°. Changing the angle to let us say 20° (vertical has inclination axis of 15°- 80°), the new welding position will be Vertical even the slope is within 150°-210°.

Production Weld Positions

Welding positions for Plate welds

For welding positions when dealing with plate are given in ASME Section IX Figure QW-461.3. These positions are only limited for WQT for welder qualification. For plate, the welding positions (Shown in below picture) are:

  1. 1G
  2. 2G
  3. 3G
  4. 4G
Groove welding positions for plate

Accordingly, the welding positions for Groove welds (Shown above) are:

  1. Flat Position
  2. Horizontal Position
  3. Vertical Position
  4. Overhead Position

The above term is used for specifying the welding position for actual welding on the job. Welding Test position and production weld positions for Fillet weld/ T joint are shown in below picture. The fillet weld in plate positions are:

  1. 1F (Flat Position)
  2. 2F (Horizontal Position)
  3. 3F (Vertical Position)
  4. 4F (Overhead Position)

Welding positions for Pipe welds

Welding position for Pipe are different than the plate. Test positions for pipe welding that are used for welder ticket/ WQT qualification are given in the below picture. Test position 3G & 4G are not applicable for pipe and they are only used for plate welding. In addition, 5G and 6G position are only applicable for pipe welding. In summary, groove welding test position for pipes are:

  1. 1G (Pipe rotates)
  2. 2G
  3. 5G
  4. 6G

What is 6GR welding Test position? 6GR welding test tips and welder qualification

There are fillet weld positions that are applicable for pipe to pipe and pipe to plate welding. The main fillet weld pipe positions are:

  1. 1F (pipe rotates)
  2. 2F
  3. 2FR (Pipe rotates)
  4. 4F
  5. 5F

These pipe weld positions which are applicable in combination with pipe to pipe or pipe to plate are shown in the below picture. in 1F, pipe welding position, the pipe is inclined at 45 degree and rotates around its axis during welding. in 2FR, pipe is placed horizontal and arrangement as a lap weld between two pipes, or pipe welded transverse to plate face is used. The test coupon rotates during the welding.

Welding Positions as per ISO 6947

ISO 6947: Welding and allied processes — Welding positions defines the welding positions used in ISO, EN, DIN, BS and NZ welding standards such as ISO 15614, ISO 15613, ISO 9606-1 & ISO 9606-2, EN15085 series, ISO 3834 series. In ISO 6947, the welding positions names are different than used in ASME or AWS. A summary of ISO 6947 welding positions in respect to ASME Section IX are given below:

  1. PA: same like 1G for groove weld or 1F for fillet weld. Same position is used for Groove or fillet.
  2. PB: Only for fillet weld, ASME equivalent 2F
  3. PC: For groove weld only, equal to 2G position
  4. PD: Only for fillet weld in overhead position, ASME equivalent 4F
  5. PE: Only for groove weld in overhead position, ASME equivalent 4G
  6. PF: For groove or fillet in vertical uphill progression. ASME equivalent is 3G or 3F
  7. PG: For groove or fillet in vertical downhill progression. ASME equivalent is 3G or 3F

What is 6GR welding Test position? 6GR welding test tips and welder qualification

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