Groove weld definition, types, symbol


What is a Groove Weld?

Groove weld is one of the types of the weld (other types such as Fillet weld, Lap weld, Corner weld etc.) where the weld is deposited in the groove obtained by two butting plate or pipe members. Groove weld or butt weld can be the same when butting members are have grooves made on them. A simple single V groove weld is shown in the below picture.

A single V groove weld

Types of Groove Weld

Groove weld has different types. The main two types are:

  1. Single V groove
  2. Double V groove

Welding joints types, symbols and pictures

Further classification is based on the type of groove preparation- as shown in the below sketch for Single V, Single U, Double V, Double U, Single Bevel, Double Bevel, Single J, and Double J Groove weld. The shape of the groove preparation is the deciding factor for the type of groove weld.

So, the groove weld types are:

  1. Single Bevel Groove weld
  2. Double Bevel Groove weld
  3. Single V Groove weld
  4. Double V Groove weld
  5. Single U Groove weld
  6. Double U Groove weld
  7. Single J Groove weld
  8. Double J Groove weld
  9. Flare bevel Groove weld
  10. Flare V Groove weld

Parts of a Groove Weld

The parts of a Groove Weld (Butt Weld) are- Root face, Bevel face, root gap, bevel angle, Groove angle, or included angle. Watch this video to learn in details about parts of a groove weld and types of weld beads and layers in a groove weld.

Groove weld vs Fillet weld

A groove weld is between the two members in the same plane butting to each other while in a fillet weld or T joint, the two members are joined to each other at a 90-degree angle in general, exception is Skewed Fillet Joint. Click here to learn types of joints- Fillet & Groove Weld.

Groove Weld Symbol

Groove weld symbols are based on the type of groove preparation. The symbol for V groove, J Groove, U Groove, flare groove, single Bevel, Double V, Double U, Double J, etc. are shown in the below picture.

Watch this video to learn welding symbols from scratch.

Types of loading (Stresses) in a Groove Weld

A Groove weld is used in a fabricated component usually to provide same strength as the base metal. Most of the groove weld are full penetration weld joints subjected to bending moments and tensile stresses. When groove welds are subjected to tensile loading, the stresses flow parallel to the base metal. Groove welds used in bridges, structure etc. are subjected mainly for the bending moments.

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