How to Read Groove Welding Symbols: Learn All About

Groove Weld (Butt Weld) Meaning

A groove weld, also known as a butt weld is a type of weld joint configuration that is created by depositing weld material into a groove (of different shapes, as we will see later in this post) that has been machined into the two pieces of metal that are being welded together.

Groove welds (Butt Welds) are often used in high-strength applications because they provide a very strong joint that can withstand high longitudinal and transverse stresses. The groove also helps to contain the molten weld material, which helps to create a smooth, consistent weld compared to a fillet weld.

groove weld types
A Single V-Groove Weld Joint

The advantage of groove welding is that it produces a strong, reliable weld joint. The V-shaped cut helps to ensure that the weld joint is as strong as possible, and the welding process fuses the two pieces of metal together permanently. Groove welding is often used in manufacturing and construction projects, where a strong, reliable weld joint is essential.

Related reading: What is a Groove Weld and its different types

How to Read groove welding symbol?

a Groove Weld symbol represents the shape of the groove. For example, below welds shows a full penetration weld with welding depth of 5 mm, root gap as 0 mm and groove included angle of 70°.

Tail section, if required can be added to the right side of the reference line to provide additional information such as WPS, material, etc.

Groove (Butt) Weld Symbol with Examples

The groove weld symbol is a simple, yet important, welding symbol. It is used to indicate the type of groove, its location, weld size and any other additional information. Remember a Groove Weld Symbol & Groove Welding Symbol are two different terminology.

Further Reading: Difference between Weld Symbol & Welding Symbol


The symbol for Groove Weld or Butt weld is typically represents the shape of groove (V, J, U or flare type) placed on the reference line of the welding symbol & pointing in the direction of the weld groove. The groove weld symbol can be used in conjunction with other welding symbols, such as the flush, convex or concave weld type.

Square Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

Weld symbols are essential for communicating the welding requirements between welder and engineer. The groove weld symbol is one of the most commonly used symbols, and it is used to indicate a groove weld. This symbol consists of a single line that connects two points on the weld joint. The line indicates the position of the weld root and the arrow points in the direction of welding.

See also  Incomplete penetration in Welding: Complete Guide

Further Reading: What is Square Groove Weld Joint, Weld Symbol with Examples

Square groove weld symbols (As per AWS A2.4 Standard) are used to indicate the location and type of welds on engineering drawings. They can be used on both flat and curved surfaces. The square groove weld symbol is composed of a two vertical lines placed on reference line with an arrow pointing to weld location.

The following examples show how to use the square groove weld symbol correctly. In each example, the weld symbol is shown in red and the welding direction is in blue.

Single bevel groove weld symbol with Examples

A Single bevel groove weld is type of a butt weld where one joining member is having weld bevel and other one is having square edges. As the bevel is only one side of a member, it is called Single Bevel Weld Joint.

Single Bevel Groove Weld Symbol

The single bevel groove weld symbol is a welding symbol that is used to indicate a single bevel groove weld. In a single bevel groove weld, the weld symbol consists of a vertical line on left side and taper line of right side as shown in the below example. The arrow should always be on the side of the metal piece that has the bevel weld preparation on it.

Related Reading: Welding bevel- types, symbols

Single Bevel & Double Bevel Weld

Double Bevel Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

The double bevel groove weld is a weld that is used to join two members together at a 90 degree angle. The weld is created by beveling only the single member on both sides. Other member is without any weld preparation having square edge.

Double Bevel Groove Weld Joint with Weld Symbol

The welding symbol for a double bevel groove weld symbol replicates single bevel weld symbol on both side of the reference line. This is a symmetrical weld symbol as shown in the above figure.

Single V-Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

A single V-groove weld is a weld joint in which the weld bevel is prepared on both members on one side only, and the bevel angle is approximately 30- 45 degrees. The single V-groove weld can also be used in other applications, such as welding pipes and tubes where welding from only one side is possible.

Double V-Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

It is a weld that has two V-grooves, one on each side of the weld. Double V-Groove is used for higher thickness materials. It help to save weld metal and also control the weld distortion by distributing the stresses.

See also  AWS-CWI exam questions and answers

A Double V-Groove welding symbol created by placing V-shape Weld symbol on both sides of the reference line as shown in the below picture. This is a symmetrical weld symbol.

Flare Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

A flare groove weld is a weld joint that is used to join one round members or bend plate to a flat member. This creates a flared groove that the weld filler metal can be deposited into. A flare groove weld has two types:

  1. Single Flare Groove- Occurs between a flat member & a bend plate.
  2. Double Flare Groove: Occurs between a round member (Bar/pipe) and a flat member.
types-of-flare-bevel Weld Joints
Single Flare Groove & Double Flare Groove Weld Joints with Welding Symbols

Welding Symbols for a Single Flare Bevel Groove weld, Double Flare Groove weld with examples are shown in the above picture for various weld joint configurations.

Flare Bevel V-Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

Remember, Flare Bevel Groove Weld & Flare Bevel V-Groove Weld are two different things. A flare bevel V-groove weld is a weld that is created by welding two round pieces of metal together with a v-shaped groove in the middle that is created due to the parts profile.

Related Posts: Welding Symbols with examples for all types of weld.

Welding Symbols for a Flare Bevel V-Groove consists of two flare shapes placed on the reference line. A Double Flare Bevel V-groove has this weld symbol placed on both sides of the reference line as shown in the below example.

Single Flare V-Groove & Double Flare V-Groove

Full Penetration Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

Complete Joint Penetration or Full Penetration Groove Weld Symbol are actually refers to Groove weld symbols. A V-Groove, J-Groove, U-Groove or a double Flare V-Groove can be a full penetration weld. A Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) means that the weld penetrates throughout the base metal thickness.

Requirements related to Complete Joint penetration/ Full penetration shall be specified in the tail section of the welding symbol so user can take adequate actions to ensure CJP weld as shown in the below example.


Partial (PJP) Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) weld or partial weld penetration are type of weld where weld penetration is not throughout the base metal. This can result if a broader root face is used in a joint or in case of a Flare Groove welds as explained earlier.

See also  Ferrite Testing, Acceptance Criteria & Conversion Formulas

Related Reading: What is CJP, PJP weld meaning, symbol, differences and examples?

The depth of penetration shall be specified on the welding symbols in case of PJP weld & conditions for PJP weld shall be given in the tail section of the weld symbol.


J-Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

It gets its name because of the “J” shape of the bevel. A J-groove weld is made by machining a J-shape bevel on the welding face of the joint. This bevel provides a groove in which the weld metal can flow and results in less weld metal being used. The good weld face and reduced amount of weld metal used make the j-groove weld an excellent choice for welding thin materials.

J Groove Weld has Four types similar to V-Groove weld:

  1. Single Bevel J-Groove Weld
  2. Double Bevel J-Groove Weld
Single Bevel J-Groove Weld

Example of a Single Bevel J-Groove weld is shown above. A Double Bevel J-Groove will have symbol placed on the both sides of the reference line. Different J-Groove configurations are shown in the below picture.

J-Groove weld types

U-Groove Weld Symbol with Examples

A U-Groove weld is mirror of J-Groove weld where bevel is placed on the both members. A U-Groove has two types similar to V-Groove welds as:

  1. Single U-Groove Weld
  2. Double U-Groove Weld

A Single U-Groove weld with its complete welding symbol is shown in the below picture. The tail section here refers to the location in the drawing & can change as per the requirements. 45-Degree inside weld symbols represents the included angle of the groove.


A Double U-Groove weld will have the above same weld preparation but on the both sides of the weld joint instead of only one side. The welding symbol will hence replicate same symbol on both sides of the reference line.

Related Posts:

Material Welding is run by highly experienced welding engineers, welding trainers & ASNT NDT Level III bloggers. We strive to provide most accurate and practical knowledge in welding, metallurgy, NDT and Engineering domains.