How to weld T-1 ASTM A514, A517 Quenched & tempered grades

ASTM A514 Material

ASTM A514 is a Quenched and Tempered (Q & T), high strength Steel Plate material having good weldability properties for use in welded bridges and other structures.

But ASTM A 517 is a Pressure Vessel Plate of Alloy Steel with High-Strength in Quenched and Tempered conditions. ASTM A514 being a high-strength material is prone to delayed cracking.

In fabrication due to this reason, NDT (visual inspection or UT or RT- for example) is usually performed after 48 hours of weld completion, this time is called inspection hold time to ensure there is no cold cracking in the weldments.

They have higher corrosion resistance compared to usual carbon steel materials and are used also without painting.

Chemical properties of ASTM A514, SA 517

The chemical composition of ASTM A514 Grade B, S, and E are different. The carbon percentage in A514 is 0.12% to 0.21%. every grade of ASTM A514 has different chemical composition requirements, below chemistry requirements for ASTM A514 Grade B are given.

Mechanical properties of ASTM A514

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Welding T-1 Steel

The ASME Section IX Welding P-Number of ASTM A514 T-1 steel is P Number 11B. THE P Number for ASTM A517 is also 11B.

Welding electrode/ TIG MIG filler for ASTM A514, A517

Stick (SMAW) welding of ASTM A514, A517 T-1 materials shall be carried out using E11018 which offers high tensile strength and matching weldment properties. All stick welding electrodes must be baked (dried) at a temperature of 700°F to 800°F (370°C and 430°C) before use.

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TIG/ MIG welding shall be carried out using ER110S-1. Make sure the filler wire with G classification meets the minimum mechanical properties requirements for the base metal. Use Argon-CO2 mixture for the shielding in GMAW. Pure argon shall be used in TIG welding. A detailed summary is given in the below table.

AWS D1.1 Table 6.9 also give welding consumable/ rod recommendation for welding ASTM A514 materials using E l0015-X, E l0016-X, E l0010-X, E l0018-M type stick welding rod as per AWS A5.5 specification.

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FCAW welding of ASTM A514, A517 shall be carried out with E110T5-k4, Shielding shall be made with an Argon-CO2 gas mixture.

Welding concerns with ASTM A514, A517

  1. Risk of Hydrogen cracking/Delayed Cracking
  2. Selection of right welding preheat temperature
  3. High residual stresses.

Welding Recommendations

  1. With SMAW, use only low hydrogen electrodes that give weld metal of required strength and toughness. The electrode must be baked before welding except for hermetically sealed low hydrogen electrodes.
  2. For SAW or submerged arc welding, weld using hydrogen-controlled electrodes and fluxes that give weld metal of required strength and toughness.
  3. For GMAW & FCAW, weld with low hydrogen type welding rods for good mechanical properties.
  4. Welding with stringer bead method and restrict the weaving to max two time of rod dia. if required. Any welding gouging with carbon electrode shall be grinded to ensure no carbon deposit in the weld area.
  5. Smoothly grind the weld profiles to reduce stress concentration points.
  6. Apply peening to reduce cracking due to high residual stresses.

Preheat/Interpass & PWHT of ASTM A514, A517

Selection of the right preheats temperature is very critical in ASTM A514, A517 material to avoid any hydrogen cracking.

Use our preheat calculator to find the right preheat temperature for steel welding. (Click here).

The maximum welding preheat and interpass temperature shall not cross 400°F or 200°C for material up to 1-.5 inches or 38 mm, and 450°F or 230°C for more than 1.5 inches according to the limitation given in AWS D1.1 code.

PWHT of ASTM A514 is not recommended is generally not carried out as it will degrade the mechanical properties of the ASTM A514 material.

PWHT will reduce the material toughness and intergranular corrosion cracking can occur in the heat-affected zone or HAZ. PWHT of ASTM A514 materials will reduce the material ductility and can cause HAZ cracking also.

You can find more useful information on welding A514/A514M-05 steel in the following codes:

  • AWS D1.1 structural welding code
  • AWS D14.3 Code
  • AWS D15.1 Code

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