How to weld Brass- Welding of Brass and Its Alloys

What is Brass?

Brass is an alloy of Copper & Zinc. They are also called Copper-Zinc alloys. Zinc fuming is a critical issue when welding brass as zinc vaporizes when brass is melted during welding. The issue is concerning when welding high zinc-based brass alloys.

Zinc vaporization effect brass weldability, which can result in porosity and lack of fusion. So, brass alloys with less zinc content have good weldability compare to ones with the high zinc content.

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Welding Processes

Brass is welded with TIG and MIG welding as SMAW welding gives poor performance. SMAW needs a wider groove angle for achieving full joint penetration and prone to slag entrapment. Overall TIG welding is good as gives good control on weld pool and shallower penetration.

Selection of welding consumables for Brass Welding

Due to the zinc vaporization issue, a matching filler wire is not available for brass welding.  Also, zinc vaporization amount varies with the amount of welding heat input, a precise weld deposit analysis is generally not possible. The below table summarizes the various types of filler metals available in the market and their characteristics.

How to weld Brass

Welding current For TIG & MIG welding of brass

How to weld Brass

Shielding Gases

Pure argon is used as shielding gas for TIG & MIG welding of brass and its alloys.

Preheating for Brass

Low zinc brass shall be preheated 100 to 350°C. Brass with high zinc shall be preheated to a lower range to avoid zinc fuming. Preheating is generally not required for thin plate welding.

Welding of brass to Carbon steel

Welding of brass to Carbon steel

Brass to carbon steel shall be welded with ERCuSi-A type filler wire. A buttering on both the weld faces shall be made prior to the joining. Preheat the brass 100 to 350°C temperature prior to the buttering. No preheating is required for the carbon steel.

Welding can also be carried out using ERCuAl-A2 type filler wire using TIG Welding.

Successful Welding tips when welding Brass

  1. Always direct the arc on the welding pool. This technique will minimize the melting of base metal thus lower the zinc fuming.
  2. Directing the arc to the weld pool also minimizes the penetration.
  3. Clean the brass surface from any impurities such as oil, moisture, or dust.
  4. Use a large bevel angle for weld joint if welding using the SMAW process.

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