AWS D1.1 vs. CWB W47.1
CWB W47.1 is a STANDARD for companies that need certification to meet Canadian construction and welding standards, including welder qualification & certification. On the other hand, AWS D1.1 is a CODE used as a welding and testing guide for companies in the United States and other countries around the world as a it’s user. W47.1 does not require welding conditions (such as prequalified joints) like D1.1, it only specifies what a company must do to become certified for its welded products to be used in Canada. The Canadian equivalent of AWS D1.1 is CSA W59. There is no US equivalent to W47.1 at the moment, as US companies do not need to be AWS D1.1 certified alike in Canada where companies need to be certified according to W47.1, they are simply recommended” to use it (in some cases).
Government law requires the use of W47.1 and W59 for all structures to be used in Canada.
CSA W47.1 and W59 standards define the requirements for certification of companies involved in steel welding, including qualification requirements for welders, welding processes, and welding supervisors. Weld quality, base material/electrode match, prequalified connections, and weld design are also determined. AWS D1.1 “Structural Welding Code – Steel” defines the requirements for the qualification of welders and welding processes, it also specifies the quality of the weld seam, the coordination of the electrode/base material, the prequalified connections, and the construction. of the weld seam. Requirements in several areas including welder qualification, welding process, weld quality, electrode/base metal match, prequalified connections, and weld design are very similar but not identical in the two systems.
The attached documents (Click here) from CWB provide a detailed difference between the AWS D1.1 and CWB W47.1.
Canadian Welding Standards
The main standards that provide general requirements related to welding in Canada are given in CSA W47.1 and W59. When we see for the US, welding requirements are given in AWS D1.1 for structural fabrication, ASME Section VIII, IX for welding of pressure vessels, and ASME B series for piping while the requirements for the European Union are given in ISO 3834.
In Canada, welding standards are under the Canadian Standards Association. In particular, CSA W47.1 and W59 standards regulate welding and specify qualification requirements for welders, weld quality, and welding processes. They also outline the requirements for welding supervisors, welding engineers, and certification processes for companies involved in steel welding. To obtain and maintain certification, companies and their personnel must qualify their personnel in accordance with recognized welding procedures for welding, welding technology, and supervisory functions. The Canadian Welding Bureau Group (CWB) oversees the certification processes of companies, inspection organizations, inspectors, and welding consumables.
American Welding Standards/ Codes
The welding codes and standards used by the welding companies in America are established by independent non-profit organizations such as ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineering) AWS (American Welding Society) or API or ANSI or ASTM for example. The most famous and influential is the American Welding Society (AWS), which creates the largest number of welding codes and standards in the United States of American. Its most recognized code is AWS D1.1 and other codes in the D Series for different types of fabrication, Along with other published documents related to welding quality control. In addition to AWS, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) creates the codes and standards for boilers and pressure piping (E.g. ASME Section IX, ASME B31.3), which include the design, construction, materials, testing, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels and piping. The American Petroleum Institute (API) writes its own welding standards and requirements for petroleum production. The most notable is API Standard 1104, the “Standard for Welding Lines and Associated Equipment”.
The most important AWS codes are:
C 5.4 Stud Welding
D 1.1 Steel
D 1.2 Aluminium
D 1.3 Sheet Steel
D 1.4 Reinforcing Steel)
D 1.5 Bridge Welding Code, All Metric
D 1.6 Stainless Steel
The most important code of the AWS is D1.1 /22/ which is being applied for the welding of load-carrying constructions of steel in the constructional area and mechanical engineering. AWS codes contain both metrics as inch measuring units.
European Welding Standards
In Europe, most of the welding standards are derived from DIN (German) standards. For welding, ISO 3834 is an international standard created by professional welding associations that defines the requirements for the quality of welded products. The quality requirements for welded products were developed by the International Organization for Standardization in cooperation with the International Welding Institute. ISO 3834 quality requirements for welding ensure through standardized testing that the welding company has competent and qualified welders. Welders must follow the Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS). Essentially, WPS is written welding instructions that are designed to consistently increase quality. Most of the European standards are adopted by the UK and termed as BS ISO standards.
In ISO standards, most notably welding standards are ISO 15614 series for WPS qualification, ISO 9606 series for welder/ operator qualification, EN 1090 for structural fabrication, and the ISO 3834 series for welding quality control certification.
Welding Standards in Australia
Australia has its own welding standards which are being used by Australians and New Zealander’s users. In Australia, welding companies also follow ASME, AWS, ISO, and API codes & Standards also. Standards Australia (AS) is the body responsible for the development, maintenance, and publication of Australian Standards. A brief summary of Australian Welding Standards are given in below table:
The International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) is the association of all National Standard Committees involving are around 145 members nowadays. ISO supports several technical committees (ISO/TC). Every country is allowed to be active inside these technical committees. However, only a few countries can afford themselves to be active inside all technical committees due to financial reasons. ISO/TC 44 is concerned with welding and allied processes.
A list of ISO Standards can be downloaded from this link.
Correlation between DIN EN and ISO Standards
In Germany, a differentiation is made between DIN, DIN EN, DIN ISO, and DIN EN ISO Standards. In general:
DIN: German Standards are only valid in Germany.
DIN EN: European Standards adopted by DIN (adoption obligation).
DIN EN ISO: Standard is valid in all CEN and ISO countries and is automatically a German Standard.
DIN ISO: ISO Standard being adopted by DIN without being a European Standard (will not happen anymore in the future).
Standards for Welding Quality Assurance
For many years the assurance of weld quality has been defined by DIN 8563 in Germany. This Standard was valid for the welding of metallic construction products during manufacturing and maintenance for which a specific quality level was required due to legal regulations, commonly accepted rules of technic or based on procurements contracts.
DIN 8563 did create a uniform base, aiming to specify the manufacturer’s suitability for professional execution of welding activities according to equal criteria and to be evaluated according to similar basic principles.
DIN 8563 part 1 and part 2 have been withdrawn and exchanged by DIN EN ISO 14731 and the Standard series of DIN EN ISO 3834.