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Glossary of welding terms
: A welding process that uses an electric arc to create heat to melt and join metals. Arc Welding
Base Metal: The metal to be welded, cut or brazed. : A visible weld deposit that results from the welding process. Bead
: A process where a filler metal is heated above its melting point and flows into the joint between two metal pieces. Brazing
A joint between two metal pieces that are joined at their ends. Butt Joint: A metal wire or rod used to conduct electricity and carry the welding current. Electrode:
Filler Metal: A metal that is added during the welding process to help form the joint.
Flux: A substance used to clean the base metal and protect the weld from oxidation and contamination. : A welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and an inert gas to create the arc. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW): A welding process that uses a consumable wire electrode and an inert gas to create the arc.
The area where two or more metal pieces are joined together. Joint: MIG Welding: A type of GMAW that uses a wire feed system to continuously feed a wire electrode into the weld.
Stick Welding: A type of arc welding that uses a stick-shaped electrode.
TIG Welding: Another name for GTAW. Weld: The joint created by fusing two or more metal pieces together.
The process of joining two or more metal pieces together by melting and fusing them. Welding:
A process of cleaning metal surfaces by blasting them with abrasive material such as sand or shot. Abrasive blasting: A welding process that uses alternating or direct current to create the welding arc. AC/DC welding:
Alloy: A mixture of two or more metals that are combined to improve the properties of the metal.
The distance between the end of the electrode and the surface of the metal being welded. Arc length: Arc time: The time that the welding arc is actually on during the welding process.
A welding technique where the welder moves the electrode away from the weld direction. Backhand welding:
Bead: A visible weld deposit that results from the welding process. A sloping edge or angle on a metal surface that allows for better penetration during welding. Bevel:
: A void or cavity in the weld metal caused by trapped gas. Blowhole
A process where a filler metal is heated above its melting point and flows into the joint between two metal pieces. Braze welding: : A process of applying a thin layer of metal to a substrate for protection or decoration. Cladding
Consumable electrode: A welding electrode that is consumed during the welding process.
Current: The flow of electricity through a welding circuit. : An imperfection in the weld, such as a crack, void or incomplete fusion. Welding Defect
: A type of current used in welding where the electrode is connected to the positive terminal of the power source. Direct current electrode positive (DCEP)
: A type of current used in welding where the electrode is connected to the negative terminal of the power source. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) : The bending or warping of metal during the welding process due to uneven heating. Distortion
Electrode: A metal wire or rod used to conduct electricity and carry the welding current.
A channel or recess cut into a metal surface to allow for welding. Groove: : The area of metal surrounding the weld that is affected by the heat of the welding process. Heat-affected zone (HAZ)
: A gas that does not react with the metal being welded and is used to shield the weld from contamination. Inert gas
Interpass temperature: The temperature of the metal between passes during multi-pass welding. Joint: The area where two or more metal pieces are joined together.
: The temperature at which a metal will change from a solid to a liquid state. Melting point
: Testing methods used to evaluate the quality of a weld without damaging the metal. Non-destructive testing (NDT) : A joint where one metal piece overlaps another. Overlap
: A process that uses a plasma arc to cut through metal. Plasma cutting
: Small holes or voids in the weld caused by trapped gas. Porosity : The process of heating the metal before welding to reduce distortion and prevent cracking. Preheat
: A type of welding that uses a pulsing current to control the heat input and improve weld quality. Pulse welding
: A type of electrode configuration where the electrode is connected to the negative terminal of the power source. Reverse polarity : The bottom of a weld joint where the two metal pieces are closest together. Root
: A welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to create the arc. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
: The non-metallic material that forms on the surface of the weld and is removed after welding. Slag : The process of a liquid metal cooling and solidifying into a solid. Solidification
: Small droplets of metal that are ejected from the weld during the welding process. Spatter
: A type of resistance welding where two metal pieces are joined by a series of small spot welds. Spot welding : A type of steel that contains chromium and other alloying elements to improve corrosion resistance. Stainless steel
: A temporary welding technique used to hold metal pieces together before the final weld. Tack welding
: The maximum stress a material can withstand before breaking. Tensile strength Torch: The tool used to create the welding flame or arc.
: The orientation of the joint in relation to the welder, such as flat, horizontal, vertical or overhead. Welding position
: A graphic symbol used to indicate the type of weld, dimensions and other welding specifications on a blueprint. Welding symbol Weldment: The assembled product or structure that is created by welding individual metal pieces together.
Wire feed speed: The speed at which the wire electrode is fed into the welding arc.
: The angle at which the electrode is held in relation to the metal being welded. Work angle Workpiece: The metal piece being welded.
: A welding defect caused by magnetic forces that push the welding arc away from its intended path. Arc blow
: The distance between the electrode and the metal being welded. Arc length : A piece of metal placed behind the joint being welded to provide support and prevent burn-through. Backing strip
: A welding process that uses a carbon electrode to create the arc. Carbon arc welding
: The amount of metal that is deposited during the welding process. Deposition rate Dual shield welding: A type of welding that uses both a flux core and an external shielding gas.
: The distance between the electrode tip and the metal being welded. Electrode extension
Electrode holder: The device used to hold and position the electrode during the welding process. Electroslag welding: A welding process that uses a consumable electrode to create a molten slag that protects the weld pool.
: A type of weld that joins two metal pieces at an angle, creating a triangular cross-section. Fillet weld
: A type of welding that uses an inverter power supply to control the welding current. Inverter welding Oxy-fuel welding: A welding process that uses a flame produced by mixing oxygen and a fuel gas to melt the metal.
: A welding process that uses a plasma arc to melt the metal and create the weld. Plasma arc welding
: A process used to relieve stress and improve the properties of the weld after it has been completed. Post-weld heat treatment Puddle: The molten metal that is created by the heat of the welding process.
: A welding process that uses pressure and electrical resistance to join metal pieces. Resistance welding
Root pass: The first pass of welding that is used to create the initial bond between the metal pieces. : A gas used to protect the weld from contamination and provide shielding from the air. Shielding gas
Categories AWS-CWI examination, BPVC ASME Code knowledge, Failure Analysis, Ferrous and Non-Ferrous materials, Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgy, QA-QC, Welding Design, Welding Inspection, WELDING KNOWLEDGE, Welding Metallurgy, Welding Processes