What is 410 steel?
Alloy 410 is a martensitic stainless steel having main alloying elements as Fe-Cr base, usually more than 11.5% Cr with added Nickel to extend the austenitic temperature formation loop in a Iron-Chromium phase diagram. This alloy offers good corrosion resistance and widely used in the Oil & gas equipment’s as liner & clad material. 410 properties can be enhanced by hardening, quenching and tempering. The alloy is air-hardenable.
Chemical properties of 410
Mechanical properties of 410
The mechanical properties of 410 depends on the heat treatment process such as annealing state or tempered state. The tempering temperature drastically affects the final material properties. the various properties of 410 material at different tempering temperature is shown in below table.
Welding of 410 material
Welding of 410 or 410S material shall be carried out using SMAW electrode E410 type according to SFA 5.4. TIG and GMAW welding of 410 shall be carried out with ER410 filler wire, SFA 5.9. Welding with 410 types requires stringent control on preheat, interpass temperature & Post heating. When post-heat treatment is not possible, welding can be carried out using ASME/AWS SFA/A 5.11, Classification ENiCrFe-2 or -3 or ENiCrMo-3 or 309L type welding electrodes.
E410 Electrode: This 12 Cr alloy is an air-hardening steel. Preheat and postheat treatments are required to achieve welds of adequate ductility for many engineering purposes. The most common application of these electrodes is for welding alloys of similar compositions. They are also used for surfacing of carbon steels to resist corrosion, erosion, or abrasion.
welding 410 stainless to 304/ 316 stainless
welding 410 stainless to 304 or 316 stainless shall be carried out using ER309L or ERNiCr-3 or ERNiCrMo-3 TIG filler or E309L or ENiCrFe-2 or ENiCrMo-3 type SMAW electrode.
Preheat & interpass & PWHT temperature for 410 welding
Preheat & interpass temperatures for 410 welding shall be controlled through-out the welding to control weld hardness and weld/ HAZ cracking.
Preheating of 410 shall be done at 400- 500 °F or 175 °C to 225 °C. The interpass temperature shall be maximum 500°F (260 °C). Preheat shall be maintained during the welding.
The post-heat treatment or PWHT of weld shall be made at 1400 °F and temperature shall be hold for 2 hours. Sometime, PWHT is mandatory as per service requirements. In such cases, the construction code requirements to be followed.
Welding of 410 to carbon steel or stainless steel
Welding of 410 to carbon steel or stainless steel shall be made using E309L or ENiCrFe-2 or -3 or ENiCrMo-3 type SMAW electrode. Equivalent TIG or MIG shall be used such has ER309L or ERNiCr-3 or ERNiCrMo-3. Preheat to 410 shall be applied to control HAZ hardness of 410 material.