What is wet chemical analysis of metals?

wet chemical analysis method

The wet chemical analysis method is a chemical analysis test used for metal testing in the liquid state. It is also called Wet chemistry test. Wet chemical test is advantageous to compare to the Spectro Analysis as small samples can also be checked that are not possible to test with a standard PMI test and do not require any surface preparation for the test.

Wet Chemistry test uses different practices (such as Colorimetric analysis, Gravimetry, and titrimetric). In Colorimetry wet chemical test, the transformation in color throughout the test aid to recognize different elements. Based on the absorbance/ transmittance of light by different elements.

It works on the principle that if a solute existing in the fluid absorbs light of a definite wavelength, then the absorbance is directly proportionate to the element concentration in the liquid.

By measuring this light absorbance will deliver the concentration percentage when compared to a standard with the same element of an identified concentration level.

In the titration process, a titrant is added with the assistance of a burette to the sample till an endpoint is attained.

This point is characterized by a change in color. In the computerized or latest titration method, the physical procedure is substituted with automatic titration where the potentiometric arrangement is used to spot the titration endpoint.

Wet chemical analysis procedure

1. Prepare the material in any right method such as chip by drilling or machining/ metal dust or metal shots. The material shall be free from any impurities.

2. Decompose the sample with a chemical such as acid that dissolves in a solvent.

3. Identifies and calculates the target specimen using different approaches such as Colorimetry, Gravimetry and titrimetric for the analysis of numerous elements or compounds of ferrous & non-ferrous metals.

What type of sample can be tested?

With wet chemical analysis, ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be checked. The material is usually taken in the following form:

  1. Chip (Unburnt stage if taken by drilling/ machining).
  2. Steel shots.
  3. Metal powder.

Standard & Specification for wet chemistry Test

ASTM A751-21: Standard Test Methods and Practices for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products

Standard & Specification for wet chemistry Test

The wet methods of analysis refer to laboratory techniques that involve the use of aqueous solutions or other liquids in order to perform chemical analysis. Some examples of wet methods of analysis include:


A method of analysis in which a solution of known concentration (the titrant) is added to a solution of unknown concentration (the analyte) until the reaction between the two solutions is complete.

The point at which the reaction is complete is usually indicated by a change in color or other observable property.


A method of analysis that uses light to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution. This can be done by measuring the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a solution.


A method of analysis that separates different components of a mixture by passing it through a stationary phase (such as a column packed with a solid adsorbent) and a mobile phase (such as a liquid or a gas).

Gravimetric analysis

A method of analysis that involves the measurement of the mass of a substance in order to determine its concentration.

pH measurements

A method of analysis that measures the acidity or basicity of a solution.

What is wet analysis and dry analysis?

Wet analysis and dry analysis are two broad categories of laboratory techniques used to analyze chemical compounds and materials.

Wet analysis refers to the use of aqueous solutions or other liquids in order to perform chemical analysis.

These methods usually involve dissolving a sample in a solvent, and then using various techniques to measure properties of the resulting solution.

Some examples of wet analysis methods include titration, spectrophotometry, chromatography, and pH measurements.

Dry analysis refers to the use of methods that do not involve the use of liquids. These methods typically involve heating, grinding, or otherwise preparing a sample for analysis, and then using various techniques to measure properties of the sample in its solid or gaseous state.

Some examples of dry analysis methods include thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry.

Which chemicals are used in wet method?

There are many different chemicals that can be used in wet methods of analysis, depending on the specific method and the type of sample being analyzed. Some examples include:

  • Titration: Commonly used titrants include strong acids (such as hydrochloric acid) and strong bases (such as sodium hydroxide) for acid-base titrations, and standard solutions of a redox reagents for redox titrations.
  • Spectrophotometry: Commonly used reagents for spectrophotometry include dyes and stains, which can be used to visually detect the presence of certain compounds, as well as solutions of known concentrations for use as standards.
  • Chromatography: Commonly used reagents for chromatography include solvents (such as water, methanol, and acetonitrile) for liquid chromatography, and gases (such as helium and nitrogen) for gas chromatography.
  • Gravimetric analysis: Commonly used reagents for gravimetric analysis include precipitation reagents (such as silver nitrate for chloride ions), and solutions of known concentrations for use as standards.
  • pH measurements: Commonly used reagents for pH measurements include buffers (such as pH 4.00 and pH 7.00 buffer solutions) which are used to calibrate the pH meter, and indicators (such as phenolphthalein and litmus) which change color at specific pH range.

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