What is Natural Flux in SAW?

Natural Flux in Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

In the world of welding, neutral fluxes play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of weld metal. These fluxes are specifically designed to withstand significant changes in arc voltage and arc length without causing any significant alterations in the chemical composition of the weld metal.

This makes them particularly useful in multipass welding, especially when working with base metals that exceed a thickness of 1 inch (25 mm). However, it is important to consider certain factors when using neutral fluxes to ensure optimal welding results.

Maintaining Chemical Composition

One of the key advantages of neutral fluxes is their ability to preserve the chemical composition of the weld metal, even when there are variations in voltage. Unlike other fluxes, neutral fluxes contain minimal or no deoxidizers.

Therefore, they rely on the electrode to provide the necessary deoxidation. It is worth noting that single-pass welds on heavily oxidized base metals may be susceptible to porosity and centerline cracking if there is insufficient deoxidation.

Understanding Chemical Composition Changes

While neutral fluxes are known for their ability to maintain the chemical composition of the weld metal, it is not always identical to the chemical composition of the electrode used. Some neutral fluxes decompose under the heat of the arc, releasing oxygen.

This can result in a lower carbon content in the weld metal compared to the carbon content of the electrode itself.

Additionally, certain neutral fluxes contain manganese silicate, which can decompose during welding, introducing manganese and silicon into the weld metal without the addition of metallic manganese or silicon. These changes in chemical composition are consistent, even when there are significant variations in voltage.

Impact on Weld Properties

Although neutral fluxes help maintain the chemical composition of the weld metal across different welding voltages, it is important to consider that other welding parameters can still influence weld properties.

Factors such as depth of fusion, heat input, and the number of passes can impact the strength level and impact properties of the weld. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully monitor and control these parameters to achieve the desired weld properties.


Neutral fluxes serve as valuable tools in the world of welding, particularly in multipass welding scenarios involving thick base metals. By preserving the chemical composition of the weld metal despite changes in arc voltage, neutral fluxes contribute to the overall quality and integrity of the weld.

However, it is essential to understand the potential variations in chemical composition and consider the influence of other welding parameters on weld properties. By doing so, welders can ensure successful outcomes and produce high-quality welds.