Ultrasonic Velocity Chart

Ultrasonic Velocity Chart

Check out the handy Ultrasonic Velocity Chart given in this article for an idea of the average speed of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in various materials.

Keep in mind, these are just rough estimates. The actual velocity could be vastly different due to various factors like composition, structure, porosity, temperature, and more.

This is especially so in materials like cast metals, fiberglass, plastics, and composites.

To ensure the most accurate thickness readings, it’s always best to calibrate the sound velocity in the test material by using a sample of known thickness.

Ultrasonic Testing Velocity

Ultrasonic testing is a widely used non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method for evaluating the properties of engineering materials.

The method relies on the measurement of ultrasonic waves to determine the properties of a material such as its thickness, density, and elastic modulus.

The speed at which these ultrasonic waves travel through a material is known as the ultrasonic velocity.

In this article, we will explore the ultrasonic velocity chart, including a comprehensive list of engineering materials that are tested using ultrasonic testing and the relevant topics that are covered.

Ultrasonic Velocity Chart for Materials

The below ultrasonic velocity chart lists the longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity at which ultrasonic waves travel through different materials.

The velocity is typically given in units of meters per second (m/sec) or inches per microsecond (in./µsec).

The chart includes a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, ceramics, liquids, and composites.

MaterialV (in./µsec)V (m/sec)
Iron, Cast (soft)0.13803500
Iron, Cast (hard)0.22005600
Iron oxide (magnetite)0.23205890
Nickel, pure0.22205630
Steel, 10200.23205890
Steel, 43400.23005850
Steel, 302 austenitic stainless0.22605740
Acrylic (Perspex)0.10702730
Composite, graphite/epoxy0.12003070
Motor oil0.06901740
Polyethylene, high density (HDPE)0.09702460
Polyethylene, low density (LDPE)0.08202080
Polyvinylchloride, (PVC)0.09402395
Rubber, polybutadiene0.06301610
Water (20 °C or 68 °F)0.05801480

Materials Tested by Ultrasonic Testing

  1. Metals: Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to test the properties of various metals such as aluminum, steel, titanium, and copper.
  2. Polymers: Ultrasonic testing is also used to evaluate the properties of polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and PVC.
  3. Composites: Ultrasonic testing is used to evaluate the properties of composite materials, including fiber-reinforced composites and carbon fiber composites.
  4. Ceramics: Ultrasonic testing is used to evaluate the properties of ceramics, including aluminum oxide and zirconia.
  5. Glass: Ultrasonic testing is used to evaluate the properties of glass, including soda-lime glass and tempered glass.

Ultrasonic Velocity Formula

The formula for ultrasonic velocity is given by:

V = √(E/ρ)

where: V = ultrasonic velocity (m/s) E = Young’s modulus (Pa) ρ = density of the material (kg/m3)

What is ultrasonic velocity?

Ultrasonic velocity refers to the speed at which an ultrasonic wave travels through a material.

How is ultrasonic velocity determined?

Ultrasonic velocity can be determined by measuring the time it takes for an ultrasonic wave to travel a known distance through a material.

How does ultrasonic velocity vary with temperature in different metals?

The ultrasonic velocity of most metals increases with increasing temperature. However, the exact relationship between ultrasonic velocity and temperature can vary depending on the specific metal.

How does the grain size of a metal affect ultrasonic velocity?

The grain size of a metal can have an impact on ultrasonic velocity. Smaller grain size can lead to higher ultrasonic velocity, while larger grain size can reduce ultrasonic velocity.

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